Infection Control

UV light is similar to ordinary visible light. The wavelengths of UV light are slightly shorter than those of violet light, but longer than those of x-rays. UV wavelengths are not visible to the human eye.

The wavelengths in certain parts of the UV spectrum are such that they can efficiently break apart molecular bonds in strands of nucleic acid (DNA) in microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. Once these bonds are broken, the microorganisms cease to survive and function.

The UV spectrum is divided into several parts depending on wavelength. The shorter wavelengths, those further from the visible spectrum and nearer the x-ray spectrum are labeled UVC. The longer wavelengths nearer the visible spectrum are labeled UVB and UVA, with UVA being closest to the visible spectrum. The wavelengths in the UVC portion of the UV spectrum match the energy of the molecular bonds in microbial DNA more closely and are orders of magnitude more effective in destroying those bonds and rendering the microbes incapable of surviving.

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UV energy is typically measured in terms of the amount of energy per unit area reaching a surface. Common units of measurement are: Joules per square centimeter (J/cm2) or milliJoules per square centimeter (mJ/cm2). A milliJoule is one – one thousandth of a Joule (1 mJ = 0.001 J).

The UV power reaching a surface is typically measured in units of Watts per square centimeter. It is a measure of the instantaneous intensity of a UV source.

One watt of power applied for one second (1Watt-second, or 1W-s) results in an accumulation of one Joule of energy. Thus, 1 W-s/cm2 = 1 J/cm2. The units of J/cm2 and W-s/cm2 are used interchangeably as a measure of UV dose.

No, different organisms require different amounts of energy to achieve a given amount of kill.

Each log of kill is a reduction by a factor of 10 in the number of viable organisms. For example, if a surface has 1000 microbes per square centimeter, a 3 log kill would reduce the number of surviving organisms to 1 per square centimeter.

For a UV source of a given power, the amount of exposure time determines the total amount of UV energy accumulated. The amount of accumulated energy determines the kill achieved for a particular microbe. Some microbes are more resistant than others. However, with an appropriately designed system, it is possible to very effectively kill typical pathogenic microorganisms with high intensity UV applied for times of a minute or less.

Many bacteria exist only in what is called a vegetative state, where they are continually metabolizing, growing and multiplying. These are generally relatively easily killed by UV.

A factor that determines how easily a bacteria is killed is the size of the organism and the thickness of any protective layer such as the cell wall.

Some bacteria can form spores which are a dormant form of the bacteria. Bacterial spores are much more resistant to most antimicrobial processes such as heat, UV, x-rays, drying, etc., since they generally have a tough protein shell that protects them.

Viruses are typically rather easily killed by UV because they are composed largely of nucleic acids and generally are small and easily penetrated by the UV wavelengths.

Continuous wave mercury lamps emit a large fraction of their energy in the UV. Approximately 90% of the UV emission is radiated in the 253.7 nanometer wavelength atomic mercury radiation line. This makes these lamps ideal for germicidal use, since this it is near the optimum wavelength for destroying DNA in microorganisms. These lamps are energized by continuous electrical power.

Halogen pulsed lamps produce a broad emission spectrum that includes visible light, infrared emission and a relatively small amount of energy in the UV. These lamps are energized by pulses of electrical power. Drawbacks to these lamps are that the electrical systems used to excite them are much more expensive and their efficiency in producing UV in the correct wavelength region to accomplish antimicrobial effects is low.

Continuous wave mercury lamps are lower cost than pulsed halogen lamps. Continuous wave mercury lamps also require significantly less electrical energy since they are considerably more efficient at producing UV at the appropriate wavelength for antimicrobial effects.

Near a cylindrical UV lamp, the intensity decreases linearly as distance from the lamp increases. Further from the lamp the intensity decreases as the square of the distance from the lamp.

It is very important that all areas of any surface being sanitized receive enough energy to disinfect the surface. The exposure pattern must be uniform enough to assure that all areas receive the appropriate UV energy.

Many surfaces and materials reflect UV poorly, but some are good reflectors. Surfaces that reflect UV well can significantly increase the amount of UV energy available.

Advanced UV System (AUVS) technology was developed by Novatron, Inc. for the department of defense for use in protecting people in buildings and enclosed spaces against biological warfare agents by killing bacterial agents in air. The AUVS technology uses reflective cavity techniques to significantly increase antimicrobial effects in air.

By using reflective technology, it is possible to significantly increase the intensity and uniformity of UV in a cavity. Increasing the UV intensity and uniformity using the cavity effect significantly multiplies antimicrobial effects.

Placing an object to be disinfected in a reflective cavity such that used in the KR615 sanitizer results in a major increase in kill of pathogenic organisms on the surface of the object because both the intensity and uniformity of the UV are greatly enhanced.

Medical Gas Generation Systems

The ON2 VPSA system works by separating Nitrogen (and other trace gases) from the air with a Molecular sieve. Resulting in Oxygen purities of 93% or greater. ON2 chose VPSA as the mechanism of choice because of the cost benefits to the customer over the life of the concentrator. These include much lower power usage, shorter start cycle, and continuous supply.

ON2 Oxygen Concentrators start and stop with demand resulting in cost savings on electricity. Oxygen purities in excess of 95% are consistently achieved. ON2 Oxygen Concentrators have minimal breakdowns due to the quality of components used. ON2 provides excellent service and 24/7 telephone support.

Yes, if you add an ON2 Cylinder Filling Station. This system can be installed in the same area as the OC, or remote from this location as long as piping can reach that location.

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With an ON2 Cylinder Filling Station you will save on shipping costs and cylinder rental, and utilize Oxygen production of your ON2 Oxygen Concentrator during lower demand times in the facility; thereby severing your dependency on medical gas supply companies. You can also fill cylinders for surrounding facilities (Clinics, Vet Clinics, Home Care cylinders) as a revenue generating plan for your facility.

As long as you can supply the filling station with oxygen from your ON2 Oxygen Concentrator location, it can be remote. ON2 offers Remote Cylinder Filling Stations for facilities with space constraints. As long as there is a footprint outside the hospital of approximately 8’x20’ we can install a Remote Cylinder Filling System (RCFS) at your site.

Depends entirely on the size of the system. ON2 systems have among the lowest power usage statistics in the market, and during the quoting process we will give you our best estimate on electricity usage and costs depending on your location.

ON2’s OC Systems vary in size significantly. The average hospital can expect to see approximately $8000 a year in costs including parts, labour and travel costs, but larger facilities can be as high as $50,000.

One of the primary benefits of ON2’s Oxygen Concentrator is that it allows the facility to break free of their dependency on the gas supply companies and their tiered costing. ON2 Concentrators provide on-site Oxygen on demand, 24 hours/day and 365 days/year. Our reliable and cost effective SOLUTION allows you to provide for the needs of the hospital at all times, without concern for delivery logistical issues that can arise when your gas supply is some distance from your facility.

ON2 works with the customer to fully understand their needs both on average demand as well as peak average demand to properly size the system. If the facility is remote, we will also suggest a duplex system for even greater peace of mind.

ON2 provides a Remote Oxygen Concentrator System (ROCS) that allows any hospital with the ability to add an ON2 OC system to supply worry free oxygen without giving up valuable space in a likely already crowded building.

Oxygen Concentrators vary in size; typically, system will fit in a 10′ x 12′ room. We custom build configurations to fit the smallest of clinics up to multi-thousand bed major facilities worldwide. By duplexing and triplexing our largest units we can supply to any and all hospitals providing significant reliability and flexibility.

Absolutely. Please visit any of the links below or contact Focus Healthcare Products today at 412-760-0034.